Henri Fayol was the first person to identify elements or functions of management in his classic 1916 book Administration Industrielle et Generale. The functions of management uniquely describe managers’ jobs. The most commonly cited functions of management are planning, organizing, leading, and controlling, although some identify additional functions. The functions of management define the process of management as distinct from accounting, finance, marketing, and other business functions. These functions provide a useful way of classifying information about management, and most basic management texts since the 1950s have been organized around a functional framework.
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