A manufacturing process leads to a substantial investment and for that reason it is necessary that it fulfills both business and technical perspectives. What varieties of products to manufacture and their various attributes have to be evaluated carefully so as to make the right decision. The choice of process also needs to mirror the market in which the product is competing, when it comes to volume and range of variation. In order to pick an appropriate process it’s important to understand which choices of different processes are available. The different processes available to select from have their own characteristics regarding market, production planning, costs and organisation.
Job shop: With Job production, the entire task is managed by a single worker or group of workers. Jobs can be small-scale/low technology as well as complex/high technology. It is possible for a number of similar units to be manufactured in parallel under job production. Job Production is generally motivating for employees as it provides the staff members an opportunity to produce the whole product and be proud of it. Job production is frequently linked to classical craft production, small firms making railings for a specific house, building/repairing a computer for a particular client, making flower arrangements for a specific wedding etc. but big companies also use job production
Batch Production: Batch production is the method employed to produce or process any product in groups or batches where the products in the batch go through the entire production process together. Batch methods need that the work for any task is split into parts or operations. Batches are constantly processed through each machine prior to moving on to the following operation. This method is among the most widely used technique for organizing manufacture and encourages specialist labor, as usually batch production consists of a small number of individuals. There exists a high probability of inadequate work flow, specifically if the batches are not of the ideal size or if there exists a considerable variation in productivity by each operation in the process. Batch production is most popular in bakeries and in the production of sports footwear, pharmaceutical, purifying water (APIs), inks, etc.
Flow Shop: It is actually a continuous process of parts and sub-assemblies passing from one stage to another until completion. Flow production means the product is created up through many different stages; the product is made upon at each stage and then handed straight to the next stage where it is built upon again. In this method when work on a task at a certain phase is finished, it should be handed instantly to the subsequent stage for processing without waiting for the remaining tasks in the batch. To ensure that the production line can function effectively each operation should be of standard lengths and there should be no movements or leakages from the line. Typical examples where flow methods are employed are the production of cars, television sets, etc.
To identify a competitive advantage an organization can select a process strategy listed above. If the organization is unaware of the ramifications of that choice it can be risky, because of the higher vulnerability of the company.