To manage is to affect the activity of a process and successful management achieves, to a degree, desired results. Knowledge of the process is not required — initially, since management may be “trial and error” until one learns “what works” in certain situations. However, knowledge of the processes and conditions that affect them is a great benefit for effective management. Two factors create great difficulty for effective management: complexity of the system and delays between the managerial action and the appearance of the results.
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