Organizing for Effectiveness in the Public Sector – India

By privatizing state-owned monopolies and deregulating whole industries, governments the world over have brought market forces to bear on electricity, telecommunications, and other economic activities formerly carried out in the public sector. This increased market pressure has in turn raised productivity as organizations in once-sleepy fields apply performance-enhancing tools long employed by private enterprise. Governments, …

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Internal Control Standards for the Public Sector

Internal control is an integral process that is effected by an entity’s management and personnel and is designed to address risks and to provide reasonable assurance that in pursuit of the entity’s mission, the following general objectives are being achieved: • executing orderly, ethical, economical, efficient and effective operations; • fulfilling accountability obligations; • complying …

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India’s Liberalization Era, Economic liberalization policy 1991

The Government of India started the economic liberalization policy in 1991. Even though the power at the center has changed hands, the pace of the reforms has never slackened till date. Before 1991, changes within the industrial sector in the country were modest to say the least. The sector accounted for just one-fifth of the …

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Liberation to liberalisation – 1991

The liberalisation policy unveiled in July 1991, initiated wide ranging policy and regulatory reforms. Industry was freed from Licence Raj’, public sector monopoly was removed from most of the sectors, quantitative restrictions on imports were either reduced or removed completely, upper cap on sectoral FDI was raised considerably or removed completely, the number of industries …

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India’s Trade Liberalization

The Liberalization of India According to Eichenberg in his lecture on February 2, 2000, liberal international relations theory suggests that the key to peace is through the promotion of free trade and the institution of democratic principles. In late 1991, with the transfer of the Indian Parliament into the hands of political and economic reformers, …

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Public sector reforms

ECONOMISTS HAVE generally held the view that private ownership of the means of production would be better in terms of economic efficiency than public ownership and public management. Public ownership owed its origin to the phenomenon of widespread marked failure in industries in which competition is impossible or undesirable, or where major externalities exist. Following …

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What is a Public Enterprise

Definitions of public enterprise can vary between countries and change over time. The United Nations definition of a public enterprise is ‘an incorporated or large unincorporated enterprise in which public authorities hold a majority of the shares and/or can exercise control over management decisions’. Some of the problems with this approach are reviewed in the …

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Public Sector Enterprise, Structure, Control, Management

Public Sector Enterprise often referred to as state sector, government owned undertakings/enterprises or state-owned enterprises. These are formed under the legal proceedings, wholly or partly owned and controlled by the government and produce marketable goods and services, have an explicit or extractable budget, and are supposed to finance their operating costs from their own resources. …

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Ownership, Competition, and Management in Public Enterprises Transition

Public enterprises (PEs) were widely established in industrial countries between the 1930s and 1950s and rapidly expanded among developing countries in the 1960s and 1970s. This paper conducts a literature review in relation to the three main arguments and sets up a theoretical perspective for the analysis in transition. This paper is arranged as follows: …

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